Saturday, May 23, 2020

Miller Test Used for Defining Obscenity in U.S. Courts

The Miller test is the standard used by courts to define obscenity. It  comes from the 1973 Supreme Courts 5-4 ruling in Miller v. California,  in which Chief Justice Warren Burger, writing for the majority, held that obscene material is not protected by the First Amendment. What Is the First Amendment? The First Amendment is the one that guarantees Americans’ freedoms. We can worship in any faith we choose, whenever we choose. The government cannot restrict these practices. We have the right to petition the government and to assemble. But the First Amendment is most commonly known as our right to freedom of speech and expression. Americans can speak their minds without fear of reprisal. The First Amendment reads like this: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. The 1973 Miller v. California Decision   Chief Justice Burger stated the Supreme Courts  definition of obscenity:  Ã‚   The basic guidelines for the trier of fact must be: (a) whether the average person, applying contemporary community standards would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest ... (b) whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law, and (c) whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. If a state obscenity law is thus limited, First Amendment values are adequately protected by ultimate independent appellate review of constitutional claims when necessary. To put it in laymans terms, the following questions must be answered:   Is it pornography?Does it actually show sex?Is it otherwise useless? So What Does This Mean?   Courts have traditionally held that the  sale and distribution of obscene material are not protected by the First Amendment. In other words, you can speak your mind freely, including the distribution of printed materials, unless youre promoting or talking about something obscene based on the above standards. The guy standing next to you, an Average Joe, would be offended by what youve said or distributed. A sexual act is depicted or described. And your words and/or materials serve no other purpose but to promote this obscenity.   The Right to Privacy   The First Amendment applies only to disseminating pornography or obscene materials. It doesnt protect you if you share the materials or shout from the rooftop for all to hear. You can, however, quietly possess those materials for your own use and enjoyment because you also have a constitutional right to privacy.  Although no amendment specifically states this, several amendments pay lip service to the issue of privacy. The Third Amendment protects your home against unreasonable entry, the Fifth Amendment protects you against self-incrimination and the Ninth Amendment generally supports your right to privacy because it upholds the Bill of Rights. Even if a right is not specifically stated in the first eight amendments, it’s protected if it’s alluded to in the Bill of Rights.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Dinosaur - 727 Words

Dinosaur Dinosaurs: Extinct or Natural Causes As geologic time goes, all the dinosaurs living on earth suddenly disappeared. How did these dominated and gigantic creatures really die? Was it a slow extinction through natural causes, or did it happen suddenly? These questions give rise to many different beliefs on how the dinosaurs disappeared over sixty-five million years ago. Something happened sixty-five million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period that was so devastating that it altered the course of life on earth. Extinction is easily defined: the birth rate fails to keep up with the death rate. However, the definition does not answer the question about the nature or causes of extinction. Since so many†¦show more content†¦A massive eruption may have saturated the atmosphere with carbon dioxide so the that a sharp rise in temperature occurred worldwide. The excessive carbon dioxide would have permitted solar energy to enter the atmosphere but would have blocked the radiation of most surface heat back into space, causing the â€Å"greenhouse effect†. rising temperatures could have killed off or reduced the activity of plankton, disrupting food chains and also disrupting the plankton’s normal role in converting carbon dioxide to oxygen through photosynthesis. It would have taken long for dinosaurs to become extinct. Dinosaurs may have also killed themselves. It is possible that they consumed poison from plants. The emergence of flowering plants could have poisoned them. These plants contained alkaloids. Smaller animals with lesser appetites could have survived the doses, but perhaps the dinosaur could not. Most mammals are smart enough to avoid these poison ness plants because of the bitter taste. The dinosaurs, however, may have not had the sense or the liver. They could not taste the bitterness or detoxify the ingested substances. This theory is not scientifically significant because there is no way of telling if the dinosaurs could taste, or how their digestive system worked. What if it wasn’t the dinosaurs that caused their own extinction, but something greater? Species of animals that have survived for millions of years have to be well adapted to their environment or theyShow MoreRelatedDinosaurs : Dinosaurs And Dinosaurs958 Words   |  4 PagesThere were over 1,000 different species of dinosaurs (â€Å"Dinosaurs†) that lived and evolved for almost 185 million years (â€Å"Dinosaur Facts†). Dinosaurs were some of the largest and most mysterious creatures to walk the Earth. Dinosaurs have helped scientists to understand the Earth and it s past by studying different types, how they lived, their characteristics and what caused their mass extinction. When, where and how did dinosaurs live? Dinosaurs arose around 200 million years ago and lived andRead MoreDinosaurs : What Are Dinosaurs?1619 Words   |  7 PagesPart A: What are Dinosaurs? Dinosaurs are land-dwelling reptiles that once roamed the Earth and the word comes from a Greek word that means terrible lizard. Dinosaurs are defined by their skeleton features, particularly the way they hold the limbs. Dinosaurs limbs support them from beneath, (like a horse), while modern-day reptiles (such as crocodiles and lizards) limbs come out from the sides. Dinosaur are a diverse species ranging in different shapes and sizes and were able to survive in a varietyRead MoreThe Fall Of Dinosaurs By Dinosaurs2185 Words   |  9 Pages 4/26/2016 English 12 Ms. Hous The fall of Dinosaurs It is hard to imagine that millions of years ago, the Earth was not dominated by humans, but by Dinosaurs. These great Beast’s, who were as big or bigger than cars, roamed the land. Some were giant killing machines, like the Tyrannosaurus Rex.Some are even alive today, while many people do not even notice. There have been countless theories as to how the dinosaurs became extinct. The dinosaurs ruled the land for millions of years, and it seemsRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Dinosaur Extinction Of Dinosaurs867 Words   |  4 PagesBefore the time of humans, dinosaurs ruled the Earth. These creatures were the greatest predators until they stopped roaming the planet. Dinosaurs died 65 million years ago at the close of the Cretaceous period. Of course, we are not exactly sure what ended the reign of the dinosaur since humans were not around at the time. However, scientists came up with countless possible theories on how dinosaurs demised. A few of the crazier theories include alien abduction or dinosaurs never existed. CertainRead MoreThe Extinction of The Dinosaurs1262 Words   |  6 PagesExtinction of Dinosaurs Many different theories exist as to why the dinosaurs went extinct. We know for sure most dinosaurs died out around 65 million years ago. The majority of scientists agree on a number of theories as to what brought the end of the dinosaurs. The most popular theory is that an asteroid ended the reign of the dinosaurs. Another theory, massive climate change in the pre-historic atmosphere, caused all the dinosaurs to die. Some scientists believe that mammals out competed dinosaurs forRead MoreDinosaurs Are Awesome526 Words   |  2 PagesI still want to see how different earth was during that time so I could confirm and add to the overall knowledge about the dinosaurs. The Cretaceous time period was the last time period in which dinosaurs are seen. This time period spanned from 144 million years ago (mya) to 66 mya; right after the Jurassic time period and before the Tertiary. This is a time when dinosaurs were at their height with many thousands of different species known or yet to be identified. Our earliest ancestors were smallRead MoreThe Discovery Of The Dinosaur865 Words   |  4 PagesZhenyuanlong Suni was dinosaur that was officially announced on July 2015 when the official scientific report (written by the paleontologist who studied it) was published. The dinosaur was given it’s name after Zhenyuan Sun who took it’s fossils for a deep study upon being discovered by a local farmer. The fossils were taken to Jinzhou Paleontological Museum by Zhenyuan Sun for further examination. The specimen was further studied by paleontologists Stephen Brusatte of the University of EdinburghRead MoreEssay on Dinosaurs964 Words   |   4 Pages Just as most dinosaurs are believed to be wild and mean, most are. Unlike the wild and ferocious Tyrannosaurus Rex, the Velociraptor, is a smaller, agile dinosaur. The Brontosaurus can be found with the bigger, more gentle dinosaurs. The Tyrannosaurus Rex, Velociraptor, and Brontosaurus differ greatly in their body structure, diet, and discovery. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Tyrannosaurus Rex was a very large dinosaur. Measuring 50 feet long, the Tyrannosaurus stood over 20 feet tall. TheRead MoreThe Extinction Of Dinosaurs904 Words   |  4 Pages Cribbins 1 Hook. The extinction of dinosaurs is a mystery in itself that has stumped scientists all over the world for decades, and they still look for new answers every day. Scientists know some background information, but cannot connect the dots to see the bigger picture. There was little interest in the topic until Luis and Walter Alvarez proposed a groundbreaking hypothesis, which today we call the â€Å"Alvarez Hypothesis†. This new idea of the Alvarez’s was exciting, and therefore gotRead MoreThe Geologic Scale Of Dinosaurs1419 Words   |  6 Pagesfood, or the environment changes making it hard for some organisms to survive the new environment (Ghose). Dinosaurs started developing after a mass extinction of the Paleozoic Era just about 125 million years ago. Dinosaurs lived through the Mesozoic Era then later died off during another mass extinction about 65 million years ago, starting the beginning of the Cenozoic Era. Almost all dinosaurs and half of the other plants and animals went extinct, some scientist think that an asteroid hit the earth

Monday, May 11, 2020

Ida B. Wells, Booker T, Washington, and W.E.B Dubois

Beginning in the 1890’s Jim Crow laws or also known as the color-line was put into effect in the Southern states. These laws restricted the rights of blacks and segregation from the white population. These laws were put into effect as partially a result of the reaction of the whites to blacks not submitting to segregation of railroads, streetcars, and other public facilities. African Americans Ids B. Wells, Booker T. Washington, and W.E.B Dubois had differing opinions on the color-line. Wells and Dubois felt the color-line created prejudice toward blacks and that the black population could not become equal with the whites under such conditions. On the other hand, Booker T. Washington thought the laws were a good compromise between the†¦show more content†¦Dubois said, â€Å"Mr. Washington distinctly asks that black people give up, at least for the present, three things, --First, political power, second, insistence on civil rights, third, higher education of Negro yo uth, and concentrate all their energies on industrial education, and accumulation of wealth, and the conciliation of the South.† Washington believed that the blacks could not move forward without giving up political power, civil rights, and higher education. He thought they had to give up those ideas for now and focus on wealth, industrial education and be friendly with the south. He thought once these objects were accomplished then the blacks could obtain the freedom and rights they wanted. Therefore, he felt that for now the color-line was ok because blacks needed to first earn their rights before they were handed over to them. William Edward Burghardt Dubois was the first African-American to earn a doctorate and lived Atlanta Georgia. He was civil rights activist and historian. In 1903 he wrote The Souls of Black Folk where he disagreed with Washington because he felt the color-line was performing a disservice to the black population. While Dubois acknowledges him as, â₠¬Å"a compromiser between the South, the North, and the Negro† : he also said,† Mr. Washington is especially to be criticized.† Dubois believed the exact opposite of Washington, he said, â€Å"Such men feel in conscience bound to ask of this nationShow MoreRelatedBooker T. Washington And His Critics : The Idea Of Racial Compromise1270 Words   |  6 PagesBooker T. Washington and His Critics: The Idea of Racial Compromise The era of Jim Crow began after the end of Reconstruction in 1877, in which through the rebuilding of the South, whites established laws and customs that forced freed slaves to stay marginalized and targeted by Southern whites. The purpose of these Jim Crow ideas was to keep blacks and white separated, and to also keep blacks from progressing in society. For instance, Southern whites forced blacks to take literacy testsRead MoreThe Gilded Age1542 Words   |  7 Pagesuntil the Progressive Era that racial segregation started gaining attention and African Americans, as well as those who wanted them to be treated equally, began making changes and their fight against racial segregation began to improve. The Niagara movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 made up of the intellectual elite of the African American community, founded by W.E.B. DuBois and William Monroe Trotter. It was called the Niagara movement because their first movement was heldRead MoreRacial Segregation And African Americans999 Words   |  4 Pagescommunities and the educational promise for many African Americans. W.E.B. DuBois was fortunate enough to grow up in an integrated community and was able to receive an education that many Black Americans would never see. DuBois, the first African American to receive a doctorate, never once took his advantage of education for granted and used his knowledge to promote equal rights and equal education for African Americans. DuBois felt that through education and action the African American communityRead MoreCash Crops1538 Words   |  7 Pagesthe ruin of your fireside. Cast down your bucket among these people... —Booker T. Washington, 1895 In this speech at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition, Washington was talking to both black and white southerners. What was he telling them to do in order to be successful in the New South? ï‚ · By making friends in every manly way of the people of all races, by whom you are surrounded, refers to sending your bucket deep into the well and bringing up a wealth of good stuff, and Its a metaphor for casting outRead MoreThe Freedom Of The United States Essay2413 Words   |  10 Pagesslaves, but for a slave in 1864, African American’s vision of freedom was limited because they had been seen as property for such a long time. Slaves didn t know what was out there and there were many whites against this new freedom they had just received. Although, they were aware that they weren t equal to whites at the time, they didn t completely know what freedom could really mean. As time went on they started to see what came with freedom and they began to demand what they deserved. TheRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : Ida B. Wells Barnett, Booker T. Washington1070 Words   |  5 Pagesracial issues in America were Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Booker T. Washington, and W.E.B. DuBois; all of whom contributed in the fight for racial equality in their own way. On July, 16, 1863, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, commonly known as Ida B. Wells was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi. Her father, James Wells, was a master carpenter whom became interested in politics after the Civil War. Her mother, Elizabeth Wells, was a cook and described as a very strict religious woman. Ida was the eldest of eight childrenRead MoreLight On The Life And Accomplishments Of Ida B. Wells1433 Words   |  6 Pagespurpose of this paper is to shine light on the life and accomplishments of Ida B. wells. She wasn’t a sociologist but her contributions to sociology were major Patricia A. Schechter has written an expansive and important biography of Ida B. Wells-Barnett. Ida B. Wells was born to slaves in Holly Springs, Mississippi, on July 16, 1862. Ida B. Wells parents were active in the Republican Party during Reconstruction. James, Wells father, was involved with the Freedman’s Aid Society and helped start ShawRead MoreRight After The Civil War892 Words à ‚  |  4 PagesAproximately, 90 % of African Americans lived in the south. They were deprive of education, so most of them were farm laborers who owned no land. The economy standards were very low. The average income was 27% of the northerns, industrialization was not well developed yet, and transportation was still ineficient. As the economy was not getting better, African American farmers were forced into sharecropping and crop lien. Farmers became victims of ABC s who were loaning them more and more money that farmersRead MoreAfrican Transformation from 1865-19201832 Words   |  8 Pagesvote, congress passed the 15th amendment, which made it legal for blacks to vote. Even with the right to vote blacks were suppressed by and scared out of voting be the Klu Klux Klan which used tactics such a lynchings to scare blacks of voting. Ida B. Wells was a black journalist who exposed lynchings in the U.S. Literacy test and poll taxes were also tactics used by white surprimisist to get blacks not to vote. Even with black codes and the KKK, this time period of Reconstruction was still a successfulRead MoreIndustrialization took place during the 1877-1920’s. It transformed a group of people from a700 Words   |  3 Pagesof segregation. W.E.B. Du Bois organized the Niagara Movement and out of that came the national association for the advancement of colored people (NAACP). Dubois became frustrated with the progress of civil rights in the U.S., moved to Ghana, and gave up his American citizenship. Booker T Washington befriended the white people that supported slavery in order to get financial support for Tuskegee Institute. He was an active supporter of African American education. Ida B. Wells, a writer for the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Rate Of Juvenile Delinquency Essay - 1625 Words

Beginning in the 1960s, the national crime rate sharply increased. At the same time, evaluations of correctional interventions during the rehabilitative period claimed, â€Å"nothing works† (Lipton, Martinson, Wilks, 1975; Martinson, 1974). The pendulum swing from treatment to punishment also filtered down to the juvenile justice system. The sharp increase in adolescent and young adult homicides in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Cook Laub, 1998) was tied to the presumed new wave of juvenile â€Å"superpredators† There were three main assumptions for the rise in crime of juveniles that consist of: the relative proportion of serious and violent offenders among all juvenile delinquents was growing; that juvenile offenders were becoming younger and younger; and that juveniles were committing more and more violent crimes. A new wave of minority superpredators did not develop, nor did a general wave of juvenile violence occur. To be sure, rates of violent juvenile behavior increased in some cities in the 1980s and early 1990s, including Pittsburgh (Loeber, Farrington, Stouthamer-Loeber et al., 2008) and Denver (Huizinga, Weiher, Espiritu, Esbensen, 2003). However, analyses of national self-report and victimization data showed that the claimed increase in juvenile violence was exaggerated (Howell, 2003b; Snyder Sickmund, 2000). Even at the height of the juvenile crime increase (1993), â€Å"only about 6% of all juvenile arrests were for violent crimes and less than one-tenth of oneShow MoreRelatedJuvenile Delinquency And The Recidivism Rate2469 Words   |  10 Pages Juvenile Delinquency and the Recidivism Rate Nathaniel L. Rogers CJ 3090 Dr. Morrison November 24, 2014 Juvenile Delinquency and the Recidivism Rate Juvenile Delinquency seems to always find itself on the front pages of newspapers. The juvenile delinquency rate is very high in America, today. According to Seigel and Welsh (2014) juvenile delinquency is defined as the participation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under the statutory age limit (p. 648). TheRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency And The Recidivism Rate2261 Words   |  10 PagesJuvenile Delinquency and the Recidivism Rate Juvenile Delinquency seems to always find itself on the front pages of newspapers. The juvenile delinquency rate is very high in America, today. According to Seigel and Welsh (2014) juvenile delinquency is defined as the participation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under the statutory age limit (p. 648). The statutory age limit varies in different states. For example, a juvenile might be considered an adult in different state for variousRead MoreNotes On Crime Rates And Juvenile Delinquency3087 Words   |  13 PagesClearwater police say that crime rates vary year to year and location to location. Throughout the past years crime rates have increased and decreased depending on the area we live in. This includes misdemeanor crimes such as small school fights or vandalizing textbooks. Lots of countries decide to deal with this issue with death penalties instead of doing something less drastic. I do not agree with such drastic measures, though. In order to lower crime rat es, juvenile delinquents should be charged asRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency Is The Highest Rate For Juvenile Crime1733 Words   |  7 PagesThe way the courts deal with juvenile delinquents varies depending on the country. Even the age of criminal responsibility is different depending on the country. Most people think when you become 18 you are no longer a minor and can be charged as an adult, well in Japan until you are 20 you can still be charged as a minor. In germany they consider 21 a legal adult .On the other hand when you become 17 in Australia you are charged as an adult. They way they treat juveniles in prison also differs. TheRead MoreFactors That Cause The Increase Rate Of Juvenile Delinquency Essay1666 Words   |  7 Pagesincrease rate of Juvenile delinquencies. A survey research design will be used. Simple random sampling technique will be used while questionnaire and interview schedule will be necessary data collection instruments. This project will use the findings to know how to reduce the increasing rates of juvenile delinquency and also how to improve the current juvenile institutions available in order to be more productive. Juvenile Delinquency Introduction Juvenile delinquency is a situationRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency Is The Highest Rate Of Incarceration Rates Among African American Males1339 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction The United States has the highest rate of incarceration in the world, this country is known to have the greatest number of people go to jail yearly than any other state shown in records. Chicago, Illinois is known to be the city that never sleeps, the city that encompasses the highest rates of homicides, drug smuggling and highest incarceration rates among African American males. Delinquency is a social term in society often used to describe individuals who have been involved in criminalRead MoreThe Relationship Between Social Class and Delinquency Essays1498 Words   |  6 Pagespreconceived notions regarding the relationship between social class and delinquency. A common assumption is that lower-class juveniles are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior than their higher-class counterparts. Criminologists have performed a large number of studies examining the socio-demographic characteristics of delinquents, which often yielded contradictory results. When analyzing the exte nt and trend of juvenile delinquency in the United States conclusions can be drawn from estimates derivedRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency Essay1646 Words   |  7 PagesA juvenile delinquent offense is an act committed by a juvenile for which an adult would be tried at a criminal court. New statistics give an alarming picture: juvenile delinquency is higher as never before. According to the census bureau, in 2008 there were 1,653,000 recorded delinquent offenses in the United States. This is a 23.6% increase from 1990 when 1,337,000 delinquent offenses occurred. Today, a lot of people demand lowering the age of criminal responsibility and draconian penalties (JensonRead MoreContributing Factors to Juvenile Delinquency1620 Words   |  7 PagesJuvenile delinquency, according to Agnew and Brezina, is the violation of the law by a minor which is any persons under the age of 18 in most states. There are many contributing factors to juvenile delinquency such as domestic issues or stress at school, and there are also four different theories, strain, social learning, control, and labeling, to explain the different prospective of why it is thought that juveniles commence in delinquent behavior. This particular discussion however, is going toRead MoreSocial And Social Learning Theory1553 Words   |  7 Pageslearned through associations with others who commit crimes. Juveniles are very impressionable or gullible, wherein they want to be popular or part of the in-crowd or clique. In comparison to the 1970’s versus today, juveniles are emulating criminals depicted on television not just through associations. Consider the current state of technology, specifically the internet and websites such as â€Å"You Tube.† With respect to crime and juvenile delinquents, You Tube is and can be a negative influence. In

Vampire Academy Chapter 16 Free Essays

SIXTEEN THE NEXT DAY, IT FULLY hit me how much things had changed since the Jesse-and-Ralf rumors first started. For some people, I remained a nonstop source of whispers and laughter. From Lissa’s converts, I received friendliness and occasional defense. We will write a custom essay sample on Vampire Academy Chapter 16 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Overall, I realized, our classmates actually gave me very little of their attention anymore. This became especially true when something new distracted everyone. Lissa and Aaron. Apparently, Mia had found about the party and had blown up when she learned that Aaron had been there without her. She’d bitched at him and told him that if he wanted to be with her, he couldn’t run around and hang out with Lissa. So Aaron had decided he didn’t want to be with her. He’d broken up with her that morning†¦and moved on. Now he and Lissa were all over each other. They stood around in the hall and at lunch, arms wrapped around one another, laughing and talking. Lissa’s bond feelings showed only mild interest, despite her gazing at him as though he was the most fascinating thing on the planet. Most of this was for show, unbeknownst to him. He looked as though he could have built a shrine at her feet at any moment. And me? I felt ill. My feelings were nothing, however, compared to Mia’s. At lunch, she sat on the far side of the room from us, eyes fixed pointedly ahead, ignoring the consolations of the friends near her. She had blotchy pink patches on her pale, round cheeks, and her eyes were red-rimmed. She said nothing mean when I walked past. No smug jokes. No mocking glares. Lissa had destroyed her, just as Mia had vowed to do us. The only person more miserable than Mia was Christian. Unlike her, he had no qualms about studying the happy couple while wearing an open look of hatred on his face. As usual, no one except me even noticed. After watching Lissa and Aaron make out for the tenth time, I left lunch early and went to see Ms. Carmack, the teacher who taught elemental basics. I’d been wanting to ask her something for a while. â€Å"Rose, right?† She seemed surprised to see me but not angry or annoyed like half the other teachers did lately. â€Å"Yeah. I have a question about, um, magic.† She raised an eyebrow. Novices didn’t take magic classes. â€Å"Sure. What do you want to know?† â€Å"I was listening to the priest talk about St. Vladimir the other day†¦Do you know what element he specialized in? Vladimir, I mean. Not the priest.† She frowned. â€Å"Odd. As famous as he is around here, I’m surprised it never comes up. I’m no expert, but in all the stories I’ve heard, he never did anything that I’d say connects to any one of the elements. Either that or no one ever recorded it.† â€Å"What about his healings?† I pushed further. â€Å"Is there an element that lets you perform those?† â€Å"No, not that I know of.† Her lips quirked into a small smile. â€Å"People of faith would say he healed through the power of God, not any sort of elemental magic. After all, one thing the stories are certain about is that he was ? ®full of spirit.’ â€Å" â€Å"Is it possible he didn’t specialize?† Her smile faded. â€Å"Rose, is this really about St. Vladimir? Or is it about Lissa?† â€Å"Not exactly†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I stammered. â€Å"I know it’s hard on her – especially in front of all her classmates – but she has to be patient,† she explained gently. â€Å"It will happen. It always happens.† â€Å"But sometimes it doesn’t.† â€Å"Rarely. But I don’t think she’ll be one of those. She’s got a higher-than-average aptitude in all four, even if she hasn’t hit specialized levels. One of them will shoot up any day now.† That gave me an idea. â€Å"Is it possible to specialize in more than one element?† She laughed and shook her head. â€Å"No. Too much power. No one could handle all that magic, not without losing her mind.† Oh. Great. â€Å"Okay. Thanks.† I started to leave, then thought of something else. â€Å"Hey, do you remember Ms. Karp? What did she specialize in?† Ms. Carmack got that uncomfortable look other teachers did whenever anyone mentioned Ms. Karp. â€Å"Actually – â€Å" â€Å"What?† â€Å"I almost forgot. I think she really was one of the rare ones who never specialized. She just always kept a very low control over all four.† I spent the rest of my afternoon classes thinking about Ms. Carmack’s words, trying to work them into my unified Lissa-Karp-Vladimir theory. I also watched Lissa. So many people wanted to talk to her now that she barely noticed my silence. Every so often, though, I’d see her glance at me and smile, a tired look in her eyes. Laughing and gossiping all day with people she only sort of liked was taking its toll on her. â€Å"The mission’s accomplished,† I told her after school. â€Å"We can stop Project Brainwash.† We sat on benches in the courtyard, and she swung her legs back and forth. â€Å"What do you mean?† â€Å"You’ve done it. You stopped people from making my life horrible. You destroyed Mia. You stole Aaron. Play with him for another couple weeks, then drop him and the other royals. You’ll be happier.† â€Å"You don’t think I’m happy now?† â€Å"I know you aren’t. Some of the parties are fun, but you hate pretending to be friends with people you don’t like – and you don’t like most of them. I know how much Xander pissed you off the other night.† â€Å"He’s a jerk, but I can deal with that. If I stop hanging out with them, everything’ll go back to the way it was. Mia will just start up again. This way, she can’t bother us.† â€Å"It’s not worth it if everything else is bothering you.† â€Å"Nothing’s bothering me.† She sounded a little defensive. â€Å"Yeah?† I asked meanly. â€Å"Because you’re so in love with Aaron? Because you can’t wait to have sex with him again?† She glared at me. â€Å"Have I mentioned you can be a huge bitch sometimes?† I ignored that. â€Å"I’m just saying you’ve got enough shit to worry about without all this. You’re burning yourself out with all the compulsion you’re using.† â€Å"Rose!† She glanced anxiously around. â€Å"Be quiet!† â€Å"But it’s true. Using it all the time is going to screw with your head. For real.† â€Å"Don’t you think you’re getting carried away?† â€Å"What about Ms. Karp?† Lissa’s expression went very still. â€Å"What about her?† â€Å"You. You’re just like her.† â€Å"No, I’m not!† Outrage flashed in those green eyes. â€Å"She healed too.† Hearing me talk about this shocked her. This topic had weighed us down for so long, but we’d almost never spoken about it. â€Å"That doesn’t mean anything.† â€Å"You don’t think it does? Do you know anyone else who can do that? Or can use compulsion on dhampirs and Moroi?† â€Å"She never used compulsion like that,† she argued. â€Å"She did. She tried to use it on me the night she left. It started to work, but then they took her away before she finished.† Or had they? After all, it was only a month later that Lissa and I had run away from the Academy. I’d always thought that was my own idea, but maybe Ms. Karp’s suggestion had been the true force behind it. Lissa crossed her arms. Her face looked defiant, but her emotions felt uneasy. â€Å"Fine. So what? So she’s a freak like me. That doesn’t mean anything. She went crazy because†¦well, that was just the way she was. That’s got nothing to do with anything else.† â€Å"But it’s not just her,† I said slowly. â€Å"There’s someone else like you guys, too. Someone I found.† I hesitated. â€Å"You know St. Vladimir†¦Ã¢â‚¬  And that’s when I finally let it all out. I told her everything. I told her about how she, Ms. Karp, and St. Vladimir could all heal and use super-compulsion. Although it made her squirm, I told her how they too grew easily upset and had tried to hurt themselves. â€Å"He tried to kill himself,† I said, not meeting her eyes. â€Å"And I used to notice marks on Ms. Karp’s skin – like she’d claw at her own face. She tried to hide it with her hair, but I could see the old scratches and tell when she made new ones.† â€Å"It doesn’t mean anything,† insisted Lissa. â€Å"It – it’s all a coincidence.† She sounded like she wanted to believe that, and inside, some part of her really did. But there was another part of her, a desperate part of her that had wanted for so long to know that she wasn’t a freak, that she wasn’t alone. Even if the news was bad, at least now she knew there were others like her. â€Å"Is it a coincidence that neither of them seems to have specialized?† I recounted my conversation with Ms. Carmack and explained my theory about specializing in all four elements. I also repeated Ms. Carmack’s comment about how that would burn someone out. Lissa rubbed her eyes when I finished, smudging a little of her makeup. She gave me a weak smile. â€Å"I don’t know what’s crazier: what you’re actually telling me or the fact that you actually read something to find all this out.† I grinned, relieved that she’d actually mustered a joke. â€Å"Hey, I know how to read too.† â€Å"I know you do. I also know it took you a year to read The Da Vinci Code.† She laughed. â€Å"That wasn’t my fault! And don’t try to change the subject.† â€Å"I’m not.† She smiled, then sighed. â€Å"I just don’t know what to think about all this.† â€Å"There’s nothing to think about. Just don’t do stuff that’ll upset you. Remember coasting through the middle? Go back to that. It’s a lot easier on you.† She shook her head. â€Å"I can’t do that. Not yet.† â€Å"Why not? I already told you – † I stopped, wondering why I hadn’t caught on before. â€Å"It’s not just Mia. You’re doing all this because you feel like you’re supposed to. You’re still trying to be Andre.† â€Å"My parents would have wanted me to – â€Å" â€Å"Your parents would have wanted you to be happy.† â€Å"It’s not that easy, Rose. I can’t ignore these people forever. I’m royal too.† â€Å"Most of them suck.† â€Å"And a lot of them are going to help rule the Moroi. Andre knew that. He wasn’t like the others, but he did what he had to do because he knew how important they were.† I leaned back against the bench. â€Å"Well, maybe that’s the problem. We’re deciding who’s ? ®important’ based on family alone, so we end up with these screwed-up people making decisions. That’s why Moroi numbers are dropping and bitches like Tatiana are queen. Maybe there needs to be a new royal system.† â€Å"Come on, Rose. This is the way it is; that’s the way it’s been for centuries. We have to live with that.† I glared. â€Å"Okay, how about this?† she continued. â€Å"You’re worried about me becoming like them – like Ms. Karp and St. Vladimir – right? Well, she said I shouldn’t use the powers, that it would make things get worse if I did. What if I just stop? Compulsion, healing, everything.† I narrowed my eyes. â€Å"You could do that?† The convenient compulsion aside, that was what I’d wanted her to do the whole time. Her depression had started at the same time the powers emerged, just after the accident. I had to believe they were connected, particularly in light of the evidence and Ms. Karp’s warnings. â€Å"Yes.† Her face was perfectly composed, her expression serious and steady. With her pale hair woven into a neat French braid and a suede blazer over her dress, she looked like she could have taken her family’s place on the council right now. â€Å"You’d have to give up everything,† I warned. â€Å"No healing, no matter how cute and cuddly the animal. And no more compulsion to dazzle the royals.† She nodded seriously. â€Å"I can do it. Will that make you feel better?† â€Å"Yeah, but I’d feel even better if you stopped magic and went back to hanging out with Natalie.† â€Å"I know, I know. But I can’t stop, not now at least.† I couldn’t get her to budge on that – yet – but knowing that she would avoid using her powers relieved me. â€Å"All right,† I said, picking up my backpack. I was late for practice. Again. â€Å"You can keep playing with the brat pack, so long as you keep the ? ®other stuff’ in check.† I hesitated. â€Å"And you know, you really have made your point with Aaron and Mia. You don’t have to keep him around to keep hanging out with the royals.† â€Å"Why do I keep getting the feeling you don’t like him anymore?† â€Å"I like him okay – which is about as much as you like him. And I don’t think you should get hot and sweaty with people you only like ? ®okay’ â€Å" Lissa widened her eyes in pretend astonishment. â€Å"Is this Rose Hathaway talking? Have you reformed? Or do you have someone you like ? ®more than okay’?† â€Å"Hey,† I said uncomfortably, â€Å"I’m just looking out for you. That, and I never noticed how boring Aaron is before.† She scoffed. â€Å"You think everyone’s boring.† â€Å"Christian isn’t.† It slipped out before I could stop it. She quit smiling. â€Å"He’s a jerk. He just stopped talking to me for no reason one day.† She crossed her arms. â€Å"And don’t you hate him anyway?† â€Å"I can still hate him and think he’s interesting.† But I was also starting to think that I might have made a big mistake about Christian. He was creepy and dark and liked to set people on fire, true. On the other hand, he was smart and funny – in a twisted way – and somehow had a calming effect on Lissa. But I’d messed it all up. I’d let my anger and jealousy get the best of me and ended up separating them. If I’d let him go to her in the garden that night, maybe she wouldn’t have gotten upset and cut herself. Maybe they’d be together now, away from all the school politics. Fate must have been thinking the same thing, because five minutes after I left Lissa, I passed Christian walking across the quad. Our eyes locked for a moment before we passed each other. I nearly kept walking. Nearly. Taking a deep breath, I came to a stop. â€Å"Wait†¦Christian.† I called out to him. Damn, I was so late for training. Dimitri was going to kill me. Christian spun around to face me, hands stuffed in the pockets of his long black coat, his posture slumped and uncaring. â€Å"Yeah?† â€Å"Thanks for the books.† He didn’t say anything. â€Å"The ones you gave to Mason.† â€Å"Oh, I thought you meant the other books.† Smartass. â€Å"Aren’t you going to ask what they were for?† â€Å"Your business. Just figured you were bored being suspended.† â€Å"I’d have to be pretty bored for that.† He didn’t laugh at my joke. â€Å"What do you want, Rose? I’ve got places to be.† I knew he was lying, but my sarcasm no longer seemed as funny as usual. â€Å"I want you to, uh, hang out with Lissa again.† â€Å"Are you serious?† He studied me closely, suspicion all over him. â€Å"After what you said to me?† â€Å"Yeah, well†¦Didn’t Mason tell you?†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Christian’s lips turned up into a sneer. â€Å"He told me something.† â€Å"And?† â€Å"And I don’t want to hear it from Mason.† His sneer cranked up when I glared. â€Å"You sent him to apologize for you. Step up and do it yourself.† â€Å"You’re a jerk,† I informed him. â€Å"Yeah. And you’re a liar. I want to see you eat your pride.† â€Å"I’ve been eating my pride for two weeks,† I growled. Shrugging, he turned around and started to walk away. â€Å"Wait!† I called, putting my hand on his shoulder. He stopped and looked back at me. â€Å"All right, all right. I lied about how she felt. She never said any of that stuff about you, okay? She likes you. I made it up because I don’t like you.† â€Å"And yet you want me to talk to her.† When the next words left my lips, I could barely believe it. â€Å"I think†¦you might be†¦good for her.† We stared at each other for several heavy moments. His smirk dried up a little. Not much surprised him. This did. â€Å"I’m sorry. I didn’t hear you. Can you repeat that?† he finally asked. I almost punched him in the face. â€Å"Will you stop it already? I want you to hang out with her again.† â€Å"No.† â€Å"Look, I told you, I lied – â€Å" â€Å"It’s not that. It’s her. You think I can talk to her now? She’s Princess Lissa again.† Venom dripped off his words. â€Å"I can’t go near her, not when she’s surrounded by all those royals.† â€Å"You’re royal too,† I said, more to myself than him. I kept forgetting the Ozeras were one of the twelve families. â€Å"Doesn’t mean much in a family full of Strigoi, huh?† â€Å"But you’re not – wait. That’s why she connects to you,† I realized with a start. â€Å"Because I’m going to become a Strigoi?† he asked snidely. â€Å"No†¦because you lost your parents too. Both of you saw them die.† â€Å"She saw hers die. I saw mine murdered.† I flinched. â€Å"I know. I’m sorry, it must have been†¦well, I don’t have any idea what it was like.† Those crystal-blue eyes went unfocused. â€Å"It was like seeing an army of Death invade my house.† â€Å"You mean†¦your parents?† He shook his head. â€Å"The guardians who came to kill them. I mean, my parents were scary, yeah, but they still looked like my parents – a little paler, I guess. Some red in their eyes. But they walked and talked the same way. I didn’t know anything was wrong with them, but my aunt did. She was watching me when they came for me.† â€Å"Were they going to convert you?† I’d forgotten my original mission here, too caught up in the story. â€Å"You were really little.† â€Å"I think they were going to keep me until I was older, then turn me. Aunt Tasha wouldn’t let them take me. They tried to reason with her, convert her too, but when she wouldn’t listen, they tried to take her by force. She fought them – got really messed up – and then the guardians showed up.† His eyes drifted back to me. He smiled, but there was no happiness in it. â€Å"Like I said, an army of Death. I think you’re crazy, Rose, but if you turn out like the rest of them, you’re going to be able to do some serious damage one day. Even I won’t mess with you.† I felt horrible. He’d had a miserable life, and I’d taken away one of the few good things in it. â€Å"Christian, I’m sorry for screwing things up between you and Lissa. It was stupid. She wanted to be with you. I think she still does now. If you could just – â€Å" â€Å"I told you, I can’t.† â€Å"I’m worried about her. She’s into all this royal stuff because she thinks it’s going to get back at Mia – she’s doing it for me.† â€Å"And you aren’t grateful?† The sarcasm returned. â€Å"I’m worried. She can’t handle playing all these catty political games. It isn’t good for her, but she won’t listen to me. I could†¦I could use help.† â€Å"She could use help. Hey, don’t look so surprised – I know there’s something funny going on with her. And I’m not even talking about the wrist thing.† I jumped. â€Å"Did she tell you?†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Why not? She’d told him everything else. â€Å"She didn’t need to,† he said. â€Å"I’ve got eyes.† I must have looked pathetic, because he sighed and ran a hand through his hair. â€Å"Look, if I catch Lissa alone†¦I’ll try to talk to her. But honestly†¦if you really want to help her†¦well, I know I’m supposed to be all anti-establishment, but you might get the best help talking to somebody else. Kirova. Your guardian guy. I don’t know. Someone who knows something. Someone you trust.† â€Å"Lissa wouldn’t like that.† I considered. â€Å"Neither would I.† â€Å"Yeah, well, we all have to do things we don’t like. That’s life.† My snarky switch flipped on. â€Å"What are you, an after-school special?† A ghostly smile flickered across his face. â€Å"If you weren’t so psychotic, you’d be fun to hang around.† â€Å"Funny, I feel that way about you too.† He didn’t say anything else, but the smile grew, and he walked away. How to cite Vampire Academy Chapter 16, Essay examples

Intensity of a Spectrum-Free-Sample for Students-Myassignmenthelp

Questions: 1.How are the electrons dispersed in the EELS magnetic prism? 2.What function is used to model the background intensity of a spectrum? 3.What function is used in the low-loss region of the spectrum (less then 100eV)? Answers: 1.The existence of electromagnetic having a shaped pole pieces results to generation of uniform magnetic field (denoted as B), having an order of approximately 0.01 T . In this magnetic field produced electrons will follow a circular like paths that is having a radius of R and the electrons will be spontaneously deflected at an angle normally 900. The force exerted by electrons sideway is F = B*e *v = Where; e = speed of electron v = charge m = mass of electron The resultant bending radius of electrons that directly depend on the velocity hence electron energy will be equal to; R = This clearly demonstrates the bending and dispersion of electrons by EELS magnetic prism 2.typically, the model is determined using linear least-square method using a single pre-edge region . Where = background fit window = signal intgergration window Ib = background intensity Ik = signal intensity Power law formulae is the most common background model for intensity of a spectrum J( E) = A A = scaling constant r = slope exponent ( that is usually 2-6) 3.The EELS in the low energy region less than 100 ev is particularl known as valence electron energy lost spectroscopy. The low loss region determines Excitation of valence band electrons Electronic structure EEL spectrum at blow loss region can be described in a dielectric formulation as; (i) Where; v = the speed of the incident region na = the number of atoms per unit volume E = the characteristic scattering angle (E = E/m0v2) Im(= the energy loss function From the equation The complex dielectric function 1 + 2 is obtained from the low loss EEL spectrum

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Slave Revolt Essays - Slavery, Nat Turner, Abolitionism,

Slave Revolt The American Civil War was inevitable and had numerous causes that led to it. This paper will discuss three important causes of the war the invention of the cotton gin, Nat Turner's rebellion, and the abolitionist movement toward ending slavery. There are many causes of the war, but I feel these three are substantial causes. Each of these events or movements created more tension between the North and the South and eventually war was unavoidable. The invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney had a great effect on slavery and agriculture in the South. The cotton gin was a machine that removed the seeds from the cotton. Removing the seeds from the cotton was a long and tedious process. This invention made processing cotton relatively fast and easy. The cotton gin's speed allowed the cotton plantations to produce massive amounts of cotton. This became very profitable. To support the harvesting of all of the cotton, more slaves were needed to run the cotton gins and harvest the cotton. This brought more slaves to America and boosted the population of slaves in the South. The increased number of slaves in the South actually helped heighten the problem with slavery. Slavery was becoming more evident and people were becoming more aware that slavery was wrong in both the North and the South. The next cause was a slave named Nat Turner and his actions. Nat was a slave who had found God and religion. Gradually he built a religious following that justified a slave revolt. On August 13, 1831, Turner says he saw a halo around the sun. He thought that this was a sign from God to begin the revolt. This was the beginning of Nat Turner's rebellion. On August 22, 1831, Nat Turner led eight slaves to the Travis's residence, a white family, and murdered five members of their family. The slaves then moved across the county murdering white plantation owners, their families, and other whites that crossed their path. As the group moved, they gained in size at every stop that they made. Many slaves joined the original eight. Not all slaves joined in on the rebellion, some stayed behind fearing that they would be stopped and killed or sentenced to harsh consequences. The group of men swelled to over seventy and managed to kill fifty-eight men, women, and children including Turner's slave owner. The killing spree went on for forty hours before the Virginia Militia apprehended the group. Nat Turner was able to escape capture by the Militia. Turner was able to evade authorities for eight days in the area near Southampton. This was until Benjamin Phipps spotted and captured Turner at gunpoint. Once in the hands of authorities, Turner confessed and told all of his motives for the killing spree. This killing spree caused many spin-off effects. The first effect was the treatment that the southern slaves received after the revolt. It drastically declined as the slave owners beat their slaves to put more fear into them to prevent another revolt. The next effect was the owners' fear of another revolt. If more slaves had joined the revolt many more may have been killed. There was a lot of tension of another revolt. The last effect that the revolt stirred up was a heightened awareness of poor slavery conditions in the South. It drew the attention of the north to make an effort to start the abolition of slavery. The abolitionists played an important part in influencing the Civil War and abolishing slavery. They worked hard to bring attention to cruelness of slavery. They protested from the late 1700's until the end of the war to get slavery abolished. Emancipation was achieved by all of the northern states by 1804. Next, slave trading was abolished 4 years later. As time goes on, the abolitionists become more radical and eventually get louder and attract more people on to follow the path to free that slaves. Flyers, articles and petitions began spreading the word of abolishing slavery. All of the work of talking and abolishing forced the friction between the North and the South to increase steadily. Eventually the friction increased to until the American Civil War was started. The causes of the civil war are much broader than this essay. This essay does cover three important causes. I chose to use points from all aspects of tension. Agriculturally, the cotton gin increased the number of slaves and made them louder and more visible. Individuals can make their voice heard as Nat Turner turned against

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Marcel Duchamp Essays - Modern Art, Orphism, Cubism, Dada

Marcel Duchamp Essays - Modern Art, Orphism, Cubism, Dada Marcel Duchamp subject = art 101 title = Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp is considered as one of the most influential artists of the 20th Century by the modern art world. Duchamp, who participated in artistic movements from Fauvism to Surrealism, was an innovator and a revolutionary within the art world. Duchamp, being a founding force in the Dada movement, was also a main influencing factor of the development of the 20th Century avant-garde art. All in all Duchamp has become a legend within the art world. Marcel Duchamp was born on July 28,1887 in Blainville France. Being the brother of two prominent artists, Raymond Duchamp-Villon and Jacques Villon, it seemed only natural that the young Marcel Duchamp would participate in the arts. Also, his childhood home was abundantly decorated with seascapes, landscapes, and etchings produced by his grandfather Emile-Frederic Nicolle. As he himself put it, When you see so many paintings youve got to paint. In 1907, at age 17, Duchamp resolved to become an artist. Marcel Duchamp had the great fortune of entering the world of art at a most exciting time when the birth of Fauvism and Cubism was in the not so distant future. Although Marcel incorporated these styles he was never satisfied with any single style. He felt that styles were learned techniques which put creativity, exploration, and imagination in the background of the art scene. Duchamps view of the lack of creativity and originality may have prompted many of his later creations which, at the time of their production, seemed absurd. Throughout Marcel Duchamps career he dabbled in a wide variety of styles ranging from Fauvism to Cubism, all the way to the art of Ready-mades. Although he openly expressed that painting bored him, he did it quite well. Early in his career he, like most young artists, painted friends and family, things he was familiar with. Duchamps only formal training came at the Academie Julian in Paris from where he dropped out after only eighteen months to pursue his own interests. This seems to be a defining characteristic of Marcel Duchamps career, he did things that suited him, not what others felt was the correct thing to do. Marcel Duchamps artistic output began with portraits of people close to him such as family members and close friends. At this time Duchamp was experimenting with Fauvism, the art of the wild beasts. In this from of art one could use arbitrary colors. This is the reason one might see portraits made by Duchamp from around 1910 in which people are represented with greenish skin or blue hair. Throughout Duchamps career it was not as important to be totally accurate as it was to get a creative point or theme across. One negative view of Fauvism was that it was not intellectually stimulating for artists. This is a main reason why many artists, one of them being Duchamp, turned their artistic focus the avant-garde. Cubism, with complex planes and geometrically sound shapes gave artists the intellectual stimulation that they craved. Colors of the early cubist period were muted which put the spotlight more on the visual effects of the art. The possibilities of manipulation of the shapes to Duchamps own interests benefited him immensely. Duchamp prospered as he turned away from the conservative Fauvism moving towards the avant-garde and experimentation within the cubist mode of art. He discovered ways to manipulate his paintings to be able to show the intricacies of his favorite game chess. Duchamp believed that art should be left up to the mind rather than the eyes, just as in chess. His first production of the Cubist origin is titled The Sonata. It is said that many of the characteristics of this painting reveal influence from a group of Cubist artists, which included his two brothers, called the Puteaux Cubists. This group of artists rebelled against casual cubism ,which was practiced by the likes of Picasso and Braque, in favor of geometric precision. Duchamp was a pioneer in Cubism by the way he showed movement in his paintings. His first attempt at showing movement through the geometric shapes is titled Sad Young Man On A Train. In this work Duchamp uses four or five overlapping profiles moving from left to right across the canvas. The colors were dark symbolizing Duchamps mood at the time. He was preparing to leave Paris in favor of, what he believed to be a less commercial area, Munich. In another attempt at movement in Cubism, Duchamp created a painting known as Nude Descending A Staircase No.1. In viewing this work, the first

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Arguments for and Against Embryonic Stem Cell Research

Arguments for and Against Embryonic Stem Cell Research On March 9, 2009, President Barack Obama lifted, by Executive Order, the Bush administrations eight-year ban on federal funding of embryonic stem cell research. Remarked the President, Today... we will bring the change that so many scientists and researchers, doctors and innovators, patients and loved ones have hoped for, and fought for, these past eight years. In Obamas Remarks on Lifting the Embryonic Stem Cell Research Ban, he also signed a Presidential Memorandum directing the development of a strategy for restoring scientific integrity to government decision-making. Bush Vetoes In 2005, H.R. 810, the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005, was passed by the Republican-led House in May 2005 by a vote of 238 to 194. The Senate passed the bill in July 2006 by a bipartisan vote of 63 to 37. President Bush opposed embryonic stem cell research on ideological grounds. He exercised his first presidential veto on July 19, 2006, when he refused to allow H.R. 810 to become law. Congress was unable to muster enough votes to override the veto. In April 2007, the Democratic-led Senate passed the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2007 by a vote of 63 to 34. In June 2007, the House passed the legislation by a vote of 247 to 176. President Bush vetoed the bill on June 20, 2007. Public Support for Embryonic Stem Cell Research For years, all polls report that the American public STRONGLY supports federal funding of embryonic stem cell research. Reported the Washington Post in March 2009: In a January Washington Post-ABC News poll, 59 percent of Americans said they supported loosening the current restrictions, with support topping 60 percent among both Democrats and independents. Most Republicans, however, stood in opposition (55 percent opposed; 40 percent in support). Despite public perceptions, embryonic stem cell research was legal in the U.S. during the Bush administration: the President had banned the use of federal funds for research. He did not ban private and state research funding, much of which was being conducted by pharmaceutical mega-corporations. In Fall 2004, California voters approved a $3 billion bond to fund embryonic stem cell research. In contrast, embryonic stem cell research is prohibited in Arkansas, Iowa, North and South Dakota and Michigan. Developments in Stem Cell Research In August 2005, Harvard University scientists announced a breakthrough discovery that fuses blank embryonic stem cells with adult skin cells, rather than with fertilized embryos, to create all-purpose stem cells viable to treat diseases and disabilities. This discovery doesnt result in the death of fertilized human embryos and thus would effectively respond to pro-life objections to embryonic stem cell research and therapy. Harvard researchers warned that it could take up to ten years to perfect this highly promising process. As South Korea, Great Britain, Japan, Germany, India and other countries rapidly pioneer this new technological frontier, the US is being left farther and farther behind in medical technology. The US is also losing out on billions in new economic opportunities at a time when the country sorely needs new sources of revenues. Background Therapeutic cloning is a method to produce stem cell lines that were genetic matches for adults and children. Steps in therapeutic cloning are: An egg is obtained from a human donor.The nucleus (DNA) is removed from the egg.Skin cells are taken from the patient.The nucleus (DNA) is removed from a skin cell.A skin cell nucleus is implanted in the egg.The reconstructed egg, called a blastocyst, is stimulated with chemicals or electric current.In 3 to 5 days, the embryonic stem cells are removed.The blastocyst is destroyed.Stem cells can be used to generate an organ or tissue that is a genetic match to the skin cell donor. The first 6 steps are same for reproductive cloning. However, instead of removing stem cells, the blastocyst is implanted in a woman and allowed to gestate to birth. Reproductive cloning is outlawed in most countries. Before Bush stopped federal research in 2001, a minor amount of embryonic stem cell research was performed by US scientists using embryos created at fertility clinics and donated by couples who no longer needed them. The pending bipartisan Congressional bills all propose using excess fertility clinic embryos. Stem cells are found in limited quantities in every human body and can be extracted from adult tissue with great effort but without harm. The consensus among researchers has been that adult stem cells are limited in usefulness because they can be used to produce only a few of the 220 types of cells found in the human body. However, evidence has recently emerged that adult cells may be more flexible than previously believed. Embryonic stem cells are blank cells that have not yet been categorized or programmed by the body and can be prompted to generate any of the 220 human cell types. Embryonic stem cells are extremely flexible. Pros Embryonic stem cells are thought by most scientists and researchers to hold potential cures for spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, Parkinsons disease, cancer, Alzheimers disease, heart disease, hundreds of rare immune system and genetic disorders and much more. Scientists see almost infinite value in the use of embryonic stem cell research to understand human development and the growth and treatment of diseases. Actual cures are many years away, though, since research has not progressed to the point where even one cure has yet been generated by embryonic stem cell research. Over 100 million Americans suffer from diseases that eventually may be treated more effectively or even cured with embryonic stem cell therapy. Some researchers regard this as the greatest potential for the alleviation of human suffering since the advent of antibiotics. Many pro-lifers believe that the proper moral and religious course of action is to save existing life through embryonic stem cell therapy. Cons Some staunch pro-lifers and most pro-life organizations regard the destruction of the blastocyst, which is a laboratory-fertilized human egg, to be the murder of human life. They believe that life begins at conception, and that destruction of this pre-born life is morally unacceptable. They believe that it is immoral to destroy a few-days-old human embryo, even to save or reduce suffering in existing human life. Many also believe that insufficient attention been given to explore the potential of adult stem cells, which have already been used to successfully cure many diseases. They also argue that too little attention has been paid to the potential of umbilical cord blood for stem cell research. They also point out that no cures have yet been produced by embryonic stem cell therapy. At every step of the embryonic stem cell therapy process, decisions are made by scientists, researchers, medical professionals and women who donate eggs...decisions that are fraught with serious ethical and moral implications. Those against embryonic stem cell research argue that funding should be used to greatly expand adult stem research, to circumvent the many moral issues involving the use of human embryos. Lifting the Ban Now that President Obama has lifted the federal funding ban for embryonic stem cell research, financial support will soon flow to federal and state agencies to commence the necessary scientific research. The timeline for therapeutic solutions available to all Americans could be years away. President Obama observed on March 9, 2009, when he lifted the ban: Medical miracles do not happen simply by accident. They result from painstaking and costly research, from years of lonely trial and error, much of which never bears fruit, and from a government willing to support that work... Ultimately, I cannot guarantee that we will find the treatments and cures we seek. No President can promise that. But I can promise that we will seek them actively, responsibly, and with the urgency required to make up for lost ground.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Sexuality among Individuals with Disability Research Paper

Sexuality among Individuals with Disability - Research Paper Example It is important to note that the lives of individuals with intellectual disability occur within various social systems that interact, including peer systems, work systems, family systems, school systems, legal systems, and community systems. Thus, it is vital to understand the mores and norms that may influence sexual identity development of such individuals through providing them with or mitigating opportunities for such development. According to Dukes and McGuire (2009), the attitudes that the surrounding individuals may have in relation to the sexual expression of individuals with intellectual disability is a measure of inclusiveness and openness of the community to such individuals(McGuire, Daly, & Smyth, 2007). As such, communities that are more inclusive will tend to have a more positive attitude towards such expression of the intellectually disabled as they are allowing them the same platform of judgment as the rest of the members of the society. It is clear from research that most caregivers are still overshadowed with attitudes when dealing with the sexual expression of the intellectually disabled individuals. Case in point, in the explorative study conducted by Isler, Beytut, Tas and Conk (2009), in which the concerns, opinions, knowledge and attitudes of parents of children having intellectual disabilities, it was clear that such parents have great concern regarding their children’s sexuality. It is important to note that most young people and children are shaped by the beliefs.

Monday, February 3, 2020

Compare and contrast the development of the colonists of Virginia, the Essay

Compare and contrast the development of the colonists of Virginia, the Puritans of Massachusetts, and the Native Americans of th - Essay Example Following that was persecution of the confessed puritans which led to their migration in escape of death. Back home in England, the church had big influence on the on people way of life and the diplomatic matters towards governance. So, when they settled in, they aggressively practiced their faith regardless of the say of the welcoming Indian inhabitants. The churches were started in New England, spread all through to Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Hampshire among others. The church leaders and the ministers were selected based on electorate method by all. â€Å"American Puritans could form churches with their owner will, in which they chose priest by themselves and they managed by themselves. There was no rigid hierarchy in church.† (â€Å"Review of European,† 150). The puritans had long desired to rule themselves and with time, the church popular concept based on their democratic free will spread across to other settlers; which led to the embrace of democracy in A merica today. The Indian Americans, for a long time had a different social structure of leadership more embraced on monarchy. A chief leader referred to as ‘sagamore’, directed the Indian people in various tribes, enforcing governance from within. If there was no son or the son was not old enough, then the widow was allowed to rule. â€Å"The right to rule (power and respect) came primarily from inheritance although some significant accomplishment or assertiveness by a warrior, for example, could qualify him to be a sagamore.† (â€Å"Narrative: Three Indian,†). This was arbitrary ignored by the white settler whose influential religious believes had sunk deep in Massachusetts. The puritans came in with the structured electoral rule while the Indians were ruled under monarchial system. Differences in cultures: The puritans’ women played no role in church and governance. All the important decisions were made by the clergy who were singly men. They had made their religious faith their culture and every action they deed had a supportive reason rooted in their faith. In the mid 16th century after the Europeans had settled they opened schools and colleges so as to promote education for every individual. Their strong motive was to enable everyone read the Bible as a plot to raise and ensure growth in Christianity. Puritans strictly followed the Bible doctrines and were keen to every little social detail. They marked the Bible as the peak book that contains right guide that can free a man from the trouble of sin that he entered in. They instilled education in schools and colleges something that the woodland Indian communities never implied to. A review of the European study reveals that â€Å"Puritans formed the first formal school in1635, which was called the Roxbury Latin School. Four years later, in 1639, the first American College –Harvard College was established.† ( 151). All this would later enforce Christianity and civilization; a literate population in the North. The American Indians instead lived in assembled families in dispersed villages and at times would meet for festivals at different season. It was a tribe who practiced fishing, hunting and gathering. Women would gather while men hunt wild animals for food and fur for trading. Native

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Ethics and Reality TV

Ethics and Reality TV Abstract Reality TV, like many other postmodern spectacles, operates on a deeply tenuous and ambiguous ethical grounding. On the one hand, the audience / creator model of exploitation can be seen as providing the viewer with entertainment and escapism. On the other it can be said to create a system of dependency and artificial need. The ethics of participation in game show style reality offers a similar contradiction which is dependent upon whether participants are free to choose, or whether they are in fact coerced by elements beyond their control. This dissertation will look at the various factors and paradigms (psychoanalytical, Marxist, poststructuralist) that constitute this model of reality. This requires a certain concretisation of terms such as ethics, and of what constitutes â€Å"reality† itself. The dissertation will also look at the politics of reality TV itself – namely, does Reality TV constitute a unique event in the development of television, or does it merely re flect a continuation for television producers to create ever more innovative methods of keeping our interests satiated? Is Reality TV itself the origin of the moral crimes, or is Reality TV merely a reflection of the ethical climate of capitalism in which we live? Finally, the dissertation will look at the possible futures for â€Å"reality† TV. Methodology As this dissertation is largely discursive in nature, and involves a widespread discussion of general philosophical and ethical themes, I will purely refer to secondary material. This will be assisted by the large and abundant materials that exist on the matter of â€Å"Reality† TV, ethics, and the conjoining of the two. I will use library materials, newspaper and magazine materials, as well as the raw footage of the Reality TV itself to generate an opinion and an overall discussion about the general impacts, considerations and ethical standards of reality TV, and whether constructive change is a) desirable and b) possible. What are Ethics? Ethics have proven to be a central part of philosophical enquiry for thousands of years. As such, it would be useful to summarize what and how this theory has developed over the years, and what tends to form the debate around â€Å"ethics† now. This is essential in order to gauge the relationship between â€Å"good† ethical conduct and the recent phenomenon of reality TV. Ethics was originally conceived as a way to engage with morals – literally, it can be seen as an attempt to establish a â€Å"moral philosophy† for living, and is concerned about notions such as what is right and what is wrong. It exposes the various difficulties between making certain decisions or of living life in a particular way. Understandably, the concept and the notion of good moral behaviour and bad moral behaviour have changed radically since the initial formulation of Western ethics in Ancient Greece over 2000 years ago. While modern moral reasoning bases its understandings upon the writings of Plato and Aristotle, it has mutated radically as regards to who the subject of the writing actually is concerned with. Whereas Plato, Aristotle and the ancient Greeks were concerned more about the self – e.g. how to morally explain the individual – whereas the modern ethical practice is more concerned about how to treat others in the first instance. Annette Hill comments that â€Å"Modern moral philosophy is therefore primarily about public good, and the development of moral values within particular social, political and cultural groups, and also within particular secular societies.† (2005, p. 110). Rather than acting, then justifying behaviour, modern ethics are primarily concerned about what exactly one should do in the first place, and is about the relationship between the self and society, the promotion of the notion of the â€Å"public good†, and of partaking in particular acts, often against the self or the will that would otherwise have a harmful effect on society. Major paradigmatic models incorporate this model of public good into their progressive ideologies. Central to the Marxist model (which I will be later applying to the phenomenon of reality TV), is the relationship between the working classes and the ruling classes. This is argued in Marx as being ethically dubious, because while the proletariat are enslaved by the capitalist system by their work, the ruling classes benefit from this relationship infinitely. Therefore, from a Marxist context, capitalism and the ways in which this model distributes wealth can be seen as the primary mechanism from which morality is corrupted. Similarly, religion and faith is often touted as â€Å"scapegoats† for unethical behaviour. The existentialist Friedrich Nietzsche formulated his own quasi-religion / moral philosophy based on the concepts of the Ubermensch and the theories of eternal recurrence. His position is existential, and forms a central part of what constitutes ethical matters today. Existentialism is, put simply, a belief that man creates his own belief systems. The existence of something precedes its essence; namely, the process of doing something is more important than the assignation of certain methods of thinking or reasoning behind it. A person is not innately good, but instead he acts good. Robert Anton Wilson (1990) comments that â€Å"Nietszsche’s existentialism (1) attacked the floating abstractions of traditional philosophy and a great deal of what passes as ‘common sense’ (e.g. he rejected the terms ‘good’, ‘evil’, ‘the real world’, and even the ego.) (2) also preferred concrete analysis of real life situations [†¦] and (3) attacked Christianity, rather than defending it† (14-15). As such, an existential critique of reality TV would tend to eschew concrete moral conclusion based on the grounding that reality TV exploits people, and therefore it is bad – moreover, the pheno menon of reality TV is based upon a number of larger social trends and mechanisms; a whole system of belief that doesn’t necessarily taint reality, but actually comprises of reality. Therefore, the existentialist may attack Reality TV, but Nietzsche would presumably argue that it is an expression of human will, Marx would argue that it represents merely an extension of the capitalism that seeks to exploit the workers and Kierkegaard would argue that his role is to determine that people have the choice to make their own decisions. Both Nietzsche and Kierkegaard were not concerned about notions of abstract truth – they were existential insofar as their concern was about day to day existence. In the absence of the notion of truth, over Nietzsche’s â€Å"will to power† and Kierkegaard’s system of choice and personal autonomy, the system of modern moral philosophy was overturned by the new ethical paradigm. Nietszche argued that the ubermensch would not do bad things because it would be detrimental to his own will to power; a moral system of good and bad is, ultimately, irrelevant to the ubermensch, because the parameters of decision-making have been changed. This ethical reasoning in many ways bled into the individualism of psychoanalysis, which is a factor that comes into play in a great many of the reality TV programmes: as I will argue later, the obsession in reality TV with rendering perverse the Freudian neuroses (described by him as anal, oral and genital fixations), combined with the capitalist, consumerist desire to pacify the â€Å"slaves† within the semiotic network that constitutes television, creates a scenario whereby the human self is rendered obscene. A psychoanalytical analysis of Reality TV creates many discrepancies; moreover, it is the combination of pacifying the autonomous will of the individual, combined with the exposition of Freudian unconscious â€Å"discoveries† that makes reality TV objectionable to mainstream technical issues. However, before I try to extrapolate the various issues at stake in the arguments for and against reality TV, the concept of reality TV, in particular what the term â€Å" reality† means in this context, has to be explored. What is the â€Å"reality† in Reality TV? Jean Baudrillard and other philosophers coined â€Å"poststructuralist† by Western scholars would undoubtedly be impressed by the ironical use of the term â€Å"reality† in reality TV. One of Jean Baudrillard’s key issues is the argument for â€Å"hyperreality†. He suggests in Simulacra and Simulation (1994) that the hyperreal is â€Å"real without origin or reality† (1). Indeed, the concept of â€Å"reality† TV where participants are asked to stay in an enclosed space for weeks on end and told to do surrealistic things (Big Brother), or to stay on a desert island (Temptation Island, Survivor) is unreal in itself, but the term â€Å"reality† instead applies to the logic that contestants exist rather than actors or performers. It is a â€Å"genre† of TV in which the controlled amateurish quality of the programme is exaggerated into a package of neuroses that have usurped and transcended reality itself. Secondly, TV is edited, dis seminated and packaged in a particular way that, according to Baudrillard, substitutes itself for reality; in one judgement of hyperreality, Baudrillard suggests that it represents â€Å"more real than real†, and eventually usurps reality. The concept of â€Å"reality† in reality TV destroys the â€Å"sovereign difference† between the map and the territory (1994, 2). As such, reality TV exists as an exemplar of this particular moment in late capitalism where the simulation of reality has evaded and transcended the real itself. To stress this theory further, I will look more generally at what Baudrillard means by hyperreality, and cite some further examples of how this theory can be established. Like Nietzsche, Baudrillard begins with an interrogation of the â€Å"real world†, arguing that because our perceptions of reality are rooted in semiotic languages and discursive structures, that the concept of an external, objective reality outside of the self can not be established, and merely bases itself upon a chimera or a lie. Instead, Baudrillard argues that reality is merely a system of communication, in which reality has become a commodified, capitalistic device. In The System of Objects, Baudrillard offers a critique of the advertising industry. While many of the images used by, say, the automobile industry are deliberately faked or exaggerated, the nature of this exaggeration, and the extent to which these images are promoted over and above the actual reality of what the car is (ultimately, a device for getting from one place to another), the specific, advertised car itself becomes an impossible object – a representation of reality that lies beyond reality itself. For instance, recent advertising that features a car that transforms into a dolphin does not have any prescience in reality, nor does it even attempt to establish itself as real. Instead, it embodies in the vehicle certain images or â€Å"realities† that, acc ording to Baudrillard, become reality and, as such, substitute reality for a marketed, plasticised illusion that â€Å"represents† reality to a greater degree. This theory can be extended to encompass many other factors that seem based upon manufacturing and colonising the real. Pornography represents a reality of sex that transcends and usurps sex itself; a soft drink with a non-existent flavour, such as â€Å"wild ice zest berry† (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperreality) creates a â€Å"reality† in linguistic terms that has no relationship to â€Å"modern† as opposed to â€Å"postmodern† reality. Again, advertising generates a reality that exaggerates and simulates the real in totality; there is no attempt made to reproduce reality, but instead signs and signification operate within themselves, applying to only their own logic. This reality can be seen in terms of reality TV as well. Programmes such as Survivor, Big Brother and other reality TV programmes that synthesise the game show format tend to exaggerate the realities of the participants. The world in which these â€Å"real† people interact is one which is completely fabricated, usually to exaggerate some narrative or mythological scenario which the viewer is undoubtedly familiar with. Big Brother, for instance, plays with the familiar Orwellian notion of total surveillance and dystopia – Survivor plays on the themes of the desert island, featured in many historical and literary myths that date back to the Bible. As such, depending on what opinions we have about what reality constitutes, these types of program are undoubtedly far off the mark. Post-production techniques are used to exaggerate the dramatic tensions between people; often people who would ordinarily have no contact are forced into relationships with one another, and it has been insinuated that certain parts of reality TV are scripted beforehand, in order to prevent the programme from becoming tedious or formulaic. What does this development in the notion of â€Å"reality† do to a discussion of the ethics of reality TV? Firstly, the production processes of reality TV are heavily reliant upon advertisers and private corporations concerned about making money. Such companies do not generally have too scrupulous a reputation for ethical marketing or behaviour. Product placement is a regular feature in reality TV, which, if looked at from a Marxist point of view, leads to the synthesis of what is seen as common sense â€Å"reality† and of corporate desire. The existential view of reality, while in a kind of agreement with the ambiguity of reality TV, would argue that reality as it is presented here merely represents a faith or a religion that substitutes the pure will (choice or autonomy) of the individual into a scenario where all things are scripted, edited and controlled by forces that depend upon the viewer becoming pacified and infantilized. I argue that the reality in reality TV merely represents a particular version of reality. As post-structuralist philosophy would suggest, the notion of objective reality in the postmodern age is simply a psychologically, sociologically and metaphysically attuned network that serves to create a religion or a mythical structure of â€Å"truth† and â€Å"reality†. While Nietzsche would argue that Reality TV subdues the personal will, and of human folly and weakness, reducing the viewer to the level of passive consumer, he would also argue that it is not the ethical place of people to assume that this dynamic of â€Å"exploitation† (as Marxists would posit) is necessarily wrong. Indeed, criticisms of Nietzsche’s critiques of Christianity, while vitriolic and hateful in tone, overlook the simple premise that Nietzsche’s intention himself was not to create a system of objective truth himself. Because, as he postulates in Beyond Good and Evil: â€Å"In the womb of being, rather, in the intran sitory, in the hidden god, in the ‘thing in itself’ – that is where their cause must lie and nowhere else! – This mode of judgement constitutes the typical prejudice by which metaphysicians of all ages can be recognized; this mode of evaluation stands in the background of all their logical procedures; it is on account of this their ‘faith’ that they concern themselves with their ‘knowledge’, with something that is at last solemnly baptized ‘the truth’† (1973, 34). As such, the creation of truth, upon which grounds Nietzsche was sorely condemned for throughout the 20th century, was not Nietzsche’s central desire – indeed, the establishment of a particular truth ignores Nietzsche’s attempts to negate the this preoccupation with â€Å"truth† and â€Å"reality† present in the mind of the â€Å"metaphysician† and the abstract philosopher. The existentialist is not concerned a bout abstractions, but instead he is concerned about the establishment of productive myths. In this respect, the â€Å"reality† of reality TV (at least where participants and audience are volunteers) is real and, dependent upon how greatly you herald such issues as personal autonomy cannot be anything but a moral, voluntary exchange. Marxism and the streams of thinkers that have come to be associated with Marxism tend to think very differently about the self. Socialist philosophy suggests that the human freedoms posited by the American and British administrations during their â€Å"free† market experiments are merely a chimera designed to obfuscate and paper over the exploitative system of exchange that operates between rich and poor. Contrary to existentialism, Marxists suggest that voluntary participants (in such things as reality TV) have to adhere to some greater moral code, because the dynamic of exchange exposes basic human vulnerabilities that exist in everybody. Their concept of reality is based upon a politics of exploitation, or a dialectical exchange between two opposing factions, one of which is exploited, and the other is dominant. Such Marxist theory can be used to explore this notion of â€Å"reality† in reality TV further: the dynamic between rich and poor (used in â€Å"crude† or traditional Marxism) creates a system of exploitation between the working class and the ruling class. This can be extended into linguistics and semantic theory, and forms the central tenet of deconstructionist theory posited by Jacques Derrida. Derrida argues firstly that the structuralist theories of Ferdinand de Saussure depended upon a relationship between the signifier and the signified – namely, what is being represented and what it represents. While Saussure argued that this framework was stable, and that the signifier and the signified never changed, Derrida and the deconstructionist theorists argued that the relationship between the signifier and the signified was always subject to â€Å"play† and fluctuated constantly. Moreover, the limitations of human communication meant that our perception of the world was limited. Derrida argues that the world is conveyed in language and discourse. Derrida takes this further, arguing that Western language has always based its functionality upon what he calls â€Å"binary oppositions†, in which one is seen as inferior, while the other is seen as superior. These oppositions run the gamut of human thinking and is what abstract philosophy tends to ignore: for instance, the dichotomy between man and woman is the subject of many feminist writers: while man can give women the same material rights, linguistically, woman still represents the absence of masculinity. Similarly, reality is seen as superior to the simulacrum, as explored by Plato’s myth of the cave, in which he argues that one pure object exists, and that everything else is a copy, and therefore inferior to the real thing. Derrida argues that deconstruction provides a solution to this problem, and by exposing and making conscious these oppositions, and deliberately working against them creates a system of simultaneous difference and equality through semantic â€Å"play†. As such, the ethical concept or exchange between the directors of reality TV, the participants and the audience create an interesting dynamic of exploitation that tends to eschew simple ethical thinking. To say that these reality programmes are bad ethically (a string of reasons have been posited, from the sensory deprivation of participants, to the unsavoury and voyeuristic nature of the program, to the use of the grotesque, to the implementation of torture techniques) avoids the overall issue that participation is â€Å"voluntary†. However, the previous arguments (deconstructive, Marxist, feminist, existential) all have radically different arguments as to what exactly constitutes â€Å"voluntary†; the notion of voluntary participation is a key issue in philosophical debate, and can be seen to surface in the ethics of advertising, fast food consumption and the selling of junk to young people. The question revolves around the concept of â€Å"reality†; namely, wh ether we are in control or whether our choices are determined by mechanisms and structures of power, addiction, and deep psychological needs. Reality TV argues that it exists as a form of entertainment. In the following section I will look at the dynamic of exploitation; particularly upon how reality TV exploits certain human qualities or â€Å"realities†, and renders them perverse. Reality TV: a psychoanalytical approach Reality TV, especially the phenomenon of the game show Reality TV programme, namely such programmes as Big Brother, Survivor, Big Diet, Celebrity Fat Club, Temptation Island, Bachelorette and Boot Camp exploit numerous psychoanalytical desires in order to â€Å"hystericise† reality and to render ordinary impulses and desires perverse. This exploitation, which I will argue is central to the strategy of corporatism and central to the postmodern malaise raises a number of ethical questions concerning the position of Reality TV in contemporary society, is endemic in the phenomenon of reality TV, and appears concerned primarily as either a reflection of, or a creation of, many issues that plague Western consciousness. Reality TV attacks certain concepts and, via gossip columns and TV journalism in other media, makes these things hysterical. One such topic is that of the â€Å"normal† relationship. While Big Brother tends to vet the participants based upon their position as s exually â€Å"perverse† (the last series of Big Brother featured a transsexual and several homosexuals) eccentric or colourful in order to engender conflict within the house and to maximize the entertainment value that can be derived from this â€Å"reality† that is constructed, the vision of the ordinary relationship, which occurs with relative frequency in the Big Brother house, is one that is treated with extreme shock by both participants, media, the programme makers, and eventually, the audience themselves. Jan Jagodozinki (2003) comments that â€Å"each reality game ‘hot-houses’ and hystericizes ‘normal relationships’, engendering paranoid perception where no one is to be trusted† (323). Of course, ethically this hystericisation serves the purpose many mass-mediated and televised spectacles seek to achieve. In a Marxist, postmodernist context, the media (especially the ‘modern’ mediums of television and brand advertis ing) wishes to engender a consumer whose only relationship to the outside world is through the corporatist-owned signification of signs. We are marketed towards in order to create an atomised, pseudo-individual whose only relationship to him / her self is through signification and engagement with the hyperreal. As such, consumer need is created, manufactured in the dream factory of advertising, and disseminated through mass media to create demand for a product that was, prior to the embellishment of reality through hyperrealistic signification, useless and unnecessary. Reality TV simply contributes to this feeling of post-human disgust with the mechanisms of the body and the unconscious mind. For instance, the drives expounded by Freud (labelled by him as genital, oral and anal), are attacked with frequency in a number of these TV reality shows: In Big Brother, participants are deprived of food, and are occasionally â€Å"treated† to products from the outside world when they participate in a particular task (the oral, anal dichotomy). The lack of privacy in toilets suggest the programmes obsession with these excretive functions; also, the relationships that occur among these â€Å"ordinary† people are exaggerated with an unparalleled degree of disgust and hysteria both within the programme and external to it in other â€Å"gossip† columns and TV magazines. This suggests an obsession with the genital drives that are echoed in other reality TV programmes. The hystericisation of normality â€Å"are the very symptoms that plague the American landscape, namely the preoccupation with the excesses of the drives – anal and oral (food / dieting) [†¦], genital (seduction) [†¦] trust, [†¦] extreme physical exertion [†¦] authority† (Jagodozinki 2003, 323). These drives are isolated and compounded in a manner that many would figure as unethical; the audiences watch the TV – voyeurs in their living rooms – rendering all these desires perverse and alien. The anal / oral functioning can be seen in all manner of these game show / reality TV hybrids. In Survivor, participants experience food deprivation, then are force-fed the junk food of capitalism. Reality TV provides us with either a perverse kind of promotion of these desires, or else exaggerates and satirizes these principles that already play a huge part in the advertising, producer / consumer relationship of (most of) Western society. For instance, many of these reality TV programmes are obsessed with food and excrement, the balance between which is, of course, expressed in terms of physical weight: Game show reality programmes such as Fat Club, Big Diet, Survivor and Big Brother, as well as innumerable documentaries, talk shows (Gerry Springer, Rikki Lake, Oprah Winfrey all tend to devote a disproportionate amount of time to â€Å"exposing† obesity in ways that carefully tread the dual lines of exploitation and grotesquer y, and non-pervasive exploration or passive â€Å"documentary†, often with a focus on the former) all focus on weight, eating and consumption as a mainstay of their challenges. In one edition of I’m a Celebrity, Get Me Out of Here, pop-mystic and spoon bender Uri Geller was forced to eat live slugs while some other minor celebrity spent most of the programme complaining about his constipation. As such, natural processes such as eating, drinking and excreting matter becomes exaggerated to such an extent that these very bodily processes become shameful. Jagodozinki comments that â€Å"Survivor players are foced to follow exactly the same starve and binge mentality of bulemics† (2003, 321). The Freudian drives and impulses are concentrated upon by programme makers in order to engender an interest in the programme that, if it were a representation of ordinary, mundane â€Å"reality†, would presumably be too scant to provoke widespread interest. Similarly, other drives are obsessed over. The genital desires, marked by an obsession with sex, lust and seduction are exploited through programmes such as Big Brother, Temptation Island and Bachelorette, where sexual, relationship related trysts are exploited by the programme makers in order to maximise audience ratings and profits from their programme. For instance, whenever a relationship threatens to bubble over in Big Brother, the programme makers, along with the media vehicles that feature Big Brother (showbiz magazines and tabloid newspapers, for instance) tend to simultaneously glorify and pervert the developing relationship into a grotesque and abominable spectacle. Trust and paranoiac fantasies are also played with in the post-production of Big Brother. The format is automatically designed to expose hypocrisy: while participants are forced to work together and live together, participants also have to periodically vote each other out of the house. As such, issues of trust and paranoiac functions are exploited, in a microcosm, of the contemporary world that constitutes â€Å"reality† TV. As such, the difficulty with exposing the ethical indiscretion of reality TV is simply that it can either be seen as a hyperbolic reflection or satire of current prevalent trends in Western society, or that it can be seen as contributing to the effects of â€Å"consumerisation†, and can therefore be seen in the light of Marxists who approach the exploitative mechanisms of mass media with grave suspicion. Louis Althusser’s system of â€Å"interpolation† which in his words, is described as having the following relationship with ideology: â€Å"ideology interpolates the individual as subject, [†¦] this interpolation is realized in institutions, in their rituals and practices† (2001). As such, the ideology of guilt, of loathing for the body and of the consumerisation of the general public through the exploitation of these particular vulnerabilities is, according to Althusser, interpolated and disseminated through mass media, or, as he calls it, the  "ideological state apparatus†. And any form of mass media that adheres to these capitalist desires against the individual and for the â€Å"subject† is also catering to systematic oppression to the masses and is therefore morally reprehensible. So, what is the argument in favour of reality TV? Namely, that it bypasses these ideologies and instead presents us with a â€Å"reality† of ordinary people, unencumbered by the traffic of biased representation one tends to get in drama and fiction. The function of reality TV, according to this argument, is to present to people life as it really is. I would argue, however, that this is not the case for a number of reasons. The psychological stresses that subjects are put under are, in themselves, unique in these game show / reality TV programmes. It would be extraordinary to presume that everyday people would be forced to endure these psychological strains. Moreover, the dissemination and the editing of these pieces together serves a dual function: firstly, it imposes a strict narrative upon the happenings based upon a desire to entertain. Entertainment can be achieved through the exploitation and exaggerations of these specific, Freudian functions. In order to condense 24 hou rs of time into half an hour, programme makers have to edit the raw material of â€Å"reality† in a way that generates interest in the overall product. The effect of this is to highlight these desires and dramas and to generate a narrative of disgust from the raw material. As such, events are scandalised, hystericised, and processed through the â€Å"state apparatus† of Freudian drama. This is satirised in the film The Truman Show. Jagodozinki (2003) comments that â€Å"The banality of his everyday life with its mundane repetitions is the very opposite of media hype which happens off camera or is worked in ‘live’† (328). The function of this segment is to highlight the principle that these dramas are not reality; simply because the subject is â€Å"real† and falls into the pigeonhole of â€Å"non-fiction† by programmers, the ways in which these â€Å"documentaries† are assembled tend to fall into dramatic stereotypes associated with the exploitation of Freudian impulses, checked with a Marxian system of exploitation. The World Is Flat: â€Å"Infotainment† and relativism Modern news programming tends to cut and splice events of widely different qualities – from serious news items about plagues, famines, death and suffering to items about cuddly toys and cats getting stranded in trees. Also, programming on commercial channels are cut every fifteen minutes with a barrage of advertising, with the effect of sharply combining the â€Å"reality† of news footage and reality TV with the â€Å"non-reality† of advertising. Ethically, this places TV in general under the accusation of numbing the viewer and transforming him or her into the amoral, relativistic, emotionally numb and philosophically nihilistic consumer infant that sociopaths and corporations tend to prefer. As such, arguments about the â€Å"reality† of reality TV being less produced than fiction tends to falter instead, the handle of â€Å"reality† has the effect of simply lowering the viewer’s (or consumer’s) guard. The juxtaposition of mundane e vents in a fast barrage of creative editing sensationalises the mundane. In a triumph of style over content, some reality TV shows and news features use music and montage to create the illusion of event, when there is no event to speak of. â€Å"Real life† documentaries and long-running reality TV programmes, such as Changing Rooms and DIY SOS utilise quirky (and somewhat insipid) montage sequences with humorous music in order to generate a homely, friendly appeal. However, almost all reality TV programmes appeal to consumerist desires (an endless procession of programmes about house hunting, gardening, buying), or exploitative voyeurism (house cleaning programmes about â€Å"dirty† people, unsympathetic obesity programmes, a fixation upon sexual or cosmetic acts). Ethically, reality TV however, only ser